June 23, 1972 Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act is enacted by Congress and signed into law by President Nixon. It prohibits sex discrimination...
June 23, 1972
Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act is enacted by Congress and signed into law by President Nixon. It prohibits sex discrimination in any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. It makes no mention, specifically, of athletics.
May 20, 1974
The “Tower Amendment” is proposed by Sen. John Tower, seeking to exclude revenue-producing sports from Title IX compliance. It is rejected.
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July 21, 1975
The Department of Health, Education and Welfare creates legislation regarding Title IX
enforcement for athletics. It gives high schools and colleges that receive federal funds three years to comply.
Feb. 17, 1976
The NCAA challenges the legality of Title IX, unsuccessfully.
Dec. 11, 1979
The Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights outlines three areas that determine if a school is in compliance with Title IX: 1) Athletic financial assistance. Schools are required to award scholarship money to men and women proportional to participation rates. 2) Accommodation of athletic interests and abilities. Schools can satisfy the participation requirement in one of three ways, known as the three-prong test, the first of which is by offering athletic participation numbers proportionate to enrollment. 3) Other areas, a laundry list including equipment, practice times, support services, etc.
Feb. 28, 1984
Grove City College v. Bell limits the scope of Title IX. Under the Supreme Court decision, Title IX applies only to specific programs that receive federal funds, and under this interpretation, the law does not necessarily cover athletics.
March 22, 1988
The Civil Rights Restoration Act is passed by Congress, over the veto of President Reagan. It applies Title IX to all operations of a school that receives federal funds, overriding the Grove City decision.
Feb. 26, 1992
In Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools, the Supreme Court rules that monetary damages are available under Title IX.
April 16, 1993
In Cohen v. Brown University, a federal court rules Brown did not meet any elements of the three-prong test for the participation requirement of Title IX. Brown is ordered to reinstate women’s gymnastics and volleyball.
Jan. 16, 1996
In response to concern schools are cutting men’s sports to reach participation requirements, the Office for Civil Rights issues guidelines for its three-prong test introduced in 1979. It affirms a school can prove compliance by choosing any of the three tests.
June 11, 2003
A suit filed by the National Wrestling Coaches Association, challenging the constitutionality of the three-prong test for participation, is dismissed.
Seattle Times staff