Juan Nerio, a 44-year-old mason's assistant, was sick of living in a mud hut on the side of a volcano. When he heard that an American company was offering six times his $200 monthly...

Share story

SAN SALVADOR, El Salvador — Juan Nerio, a 44-year-old mason’s assistant, was sick of living in a mud hut on the side of a volcano. When he heard that an American company was offering six times his $200 monthly wage, he signed up.

Six weeks later he found himself holding an AK-47 assault rifle and guarding a U.S. diplomatic complex in Iraq.

Most Read Stories

Unlimited Digital Access. $1 for 4 weeks

“No one could possibly earn so much in our country,” said Nerio, who returned to El Salvador two weeks ago after a hernia forced him to reluctantly give up his $1,240-a-month job in the Iraqi city of Basra. “With that kind of money, I thought I could make my family’s life a little easier.”

Like Nerio, hundreds of Salvadoran men, and even a few women, are jumping at the chance to pursue what the news media here call the “Iraqi Dream.” With the U.S. military unable to meet security needs in Iraq, private U.S. firms are providing thousands of armed guards for diplomatic installations, oil wells, businesses and contractors there.

These firms are aggressively recruiting in El Salvador, a member of the U.S.-led military coalition in Iraq, viewing it as an ideal source of guards. The country has low wages, high unemployment and a large pool of men with military or police experience — many of whom were U.S.-trained — from the 12-year civil war that ended in 1992.

But the heavy recruitment campaign — through newspaper ads that offer salaries of as much as $3,600 a month — has raised concerns among human-rights officials, who say the companies are exploiting the poor.

“This is the equivalent of a poverty draft,” said Geoff Thale of the Washington Office on Latin America, a rights and policy group. “The United States is unwilling to draft people, so they are recruiting people from poor countries to be cannon fodder for us. And if they are killed or injured, there will be no political consequences in the United States.”

Beatrice Alamani de Carrillo, El Salvador’s independent human-rights ombudsman, said the security companies were “playing with the desperation of people who have no other options.” She said if any of the Salvadorans were kidnapped, “Our country is not in a position to negotiate their release.”

She said she was especially concerned about under-trained women going to Iraq.

Many of the Salvadorans, including Nerio, have been recruited by Triple Canopy, a U.S. firm. According to Salvadoran news reports, a group of 30 men and six women hired by the company left for Iraq in late November. Many are former soldiers and special forces members; others have far less training.

Nerio served in the Salvadoran army for two years more than 20 years ago.

Several recruits said the jobs appealed to them because tighter immigration rules and border controls had slashed opportunities to emigrate to the U.S. More than a million Salvadorans emigrated to the United States during or after the civil war.

Joe Mayo, a spokesman for Triple Canopy, declined to say exactly how many people the company was sending to Iraq, but noted media estimates of about 175 recruits were about right.

Mayo said the firm made clear the jobs were dangerous. He said it was providing a needed service to the U.S. government and private companies in Iraq.

“It’s a free world and a free economy,” said Mayo at the company’s headquarters in Lincolnshire, Ill. “We’re not grabbing people and making them go.”

Between 3,000 and 6,000 non-Iraqi security guards are working in Iraq, according to Doug Brooks of the International Peace Operations Association in Washington, D.C., which monitors the private security industry. He said about one-third are former special-operations soldiers, mainly from the United States and Britain.

The rest are men and women with some military experience recruited from about a dozen countries, especially El Salvador, Fiji, Nepal, Chile and India.

Brooks said U.S. and British guards make as much as $700 a day for jobs requiring the highest skills, such as protecting high-profile diplomats and business executives. The others make an average $1,200 a month, generally for standing guard at military or civilian sites.

Special correspondent Michelle Garcia in New York City contributed to this report.