Migrants in Macedonia said they are especially anxious to move now that Hungary — the transit land north of Serbia on the long route to Germany — has decided to build a fence to keep migrants out.

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BERLIN — Europe’s migration crisis took on new dimensions Thursday as at least three countries announced added security measures to address the biggest movement of refugees and migrants seen since the aftermath of World War II.

The sheer numbers of migrants are clogging critical choke points across Europe. In July, 107,500 migrants entered the 28-nation European Union (EU), according to Frontex, the bloc’s border-management agency. That was more than three times the number in the same month last year.

The latest country to be overwhelmed by the surge is the tiny Balkan nation of Macedonia. It declared a state of emergency Thursday and said it would deploy the military to restore calm to its southern border with Greece and its northern frontier with Serbia.

Many of the refugees are fleeing the wars in Iraq and Syria and had recently made their way from Turkey to Greek islands. They have flooded into Macedonia — almost 42,000 in the past two months, according to the nation’s Ministry of Interior — as they head north to seek asylum in wealthy countries such as Austria, Germany, Britain or Sweden.

Migrants in Macedonia said they are especially anxious to move now that Hungary — the transit land north of Serbia on the long route to Germany — has decided to build a fence to keep migrants out.

Nongovernmental groups in Macedonia criticized the government’s move as a step that would again expose migrants to human traffickers or tempt them into dangerous paths, such as walking along rails at night.

Also Thursday, British and French authorities said they would set up a new “command and control center” in Calais, the French port at the mouth of the Channel Tunnel, where several thousand migrants live in a makeshift camp, awaiting the chance to sneak into Britain.

The images of chaos on the border between two of Europe’s richest nations have highlighted the inability of Europe to deal with the crisis.

German leaders say Europe must act to distribute refugees from war and persecution more evenly among European nations, while so-called economic migrants — mostly from impoverished Balkan countries — will be sent home from Germany because they do not qualify for asylum.

Yet policymakers have failed to produce a coherent collective response to the challenge, and efforts to agree on quotas for EU countries to accept refugees have achieved only limited success.

After meeting in Calais with his British counterpart, the French interior minister, Bernard Cazeneuve, traveled to Berlin for talks with his German colleague, Thomas de Maizière, who said Wednesday that Germany, Europe’s No. 1 power, expects up to 800,000 asylum seekers this year.

In Macedonia, reports from the border with Greece late Thursday suggested that about 1,500 migrants — many of them Syrians, Iraqis and Afghans — were stranded between the Greek and Macedonian borders.

Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski of Macedonia said the state of emergency was a “temporary mechanism” intended to control the flow of migrants “so that they will have more humane transport through Macedonia.”

Two months ago, authorities in Macedonia introduced measures to document migrants. At that point, there were 500 to 600 arrivals each day, he said. The number has climbed to 2,500 a day and is likely to continue to increase to 3,000 to 4,000 a day, he said. “The country does not have the capacity to help so many people, so we had to intervene,” Gruevski said, noting that trains designed to accommodate 350 people have been arriving with 650 onboard.

The British-French agreement Thursday is intended to halt the acts of desperation seen this summer around Calais, typical of countless others across the Continent. Migrants in the French port have tried to break into the Channel Tunnel and stow away on cars, trucks and trains. Some efforts have proved fatal.

Under plans announced after talks in France, British police and border-protection forces will work with their French counterparts at a new “command and control center” in Calais. The new body will be led by two senior officers, one British and one French, and will try to target those organizing human trafficking.

Under the new agreement, Britain will spend more on reinforcing the perimeter of the Eurotunnel railhead with tougher fencing, CCTV, floodlighting and infrared detection technology. Extra search teams, including detection dogs, will be deployed, more mobile French policing units will be added and a security audit will be conducted. Meanwhile, British officials will also continue an information campaign in Calais to provide “a more dissuasive and realistic sense of life for illegal migrants” in Britain.