The drought has led to the displacement of thousands of people this spring, adding to the nearly 2 million who have been forced from their homes in recent years, largely because of violence.

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KABUL, Afghanistan — Afghanistan, already torn by decades of intensifying violence, is grappling with a drought in two-thirds of the country that could lead to severe food shortages for up to 2 million more people, the United Nations has warned.

The U.N. humanitarian coordinator in Afghanistan said in a report released last week that a “precipitation deficit” of 70 percent in most parts of the country had affected winter harvests, and resulted in grim prospects for the spring and summer.

Many farmers have seen their seeds dry out or have delayed planting crops, and there is little or no feed for livestock on pasturelands.

The drought has led to the displacement of thousands of people this spring, adding to the nearly 2 million who have been forced from their homes in recent years, largely because of violence.

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“In the 20 provinces most affected by the drought, nearly 15 million people rely on farming, livestock or labor opportunities in agriculture,” the U.N. report said.

Toby Lanzer, the organization’s humanitarian coordinator in Afghanistan, said an urgent appeal had been made to donor countries to prevent what he said would be “a situation of untenable hunger” in six months. In a country that relies heavily on bread, a shortage of 2.5 million tons of wheat is expected this year.

Lanzer said the United Nations was asking for an additional $115 million, on top of an appeal for humanitarian assistance of $430 million made earlier in the year, to provide food, fodder for cattle and other assistance. But donors face numerous requests for assistance around the world, and the initial request for $430 million has been fulfilled by only 28 percent so far.

“Engage now, prevent a catastrophe, or pay much much more in six months,” Lanzer said he had been telling potential donor countries. “The stakes are very high for Afghanistan on the drought.”

The drought comes as violence has been escalating in large parts of the country, with Taliban insurgents intensifying attacks. Officials often report attacks or military operations in as many as 20 of the 34 provinces. The Afghan government’s ability to respond to this latest crisis remains in doubt, as the leadership faces numerous security concerns and is plagued by political infighting.

Widespread violence has increased the drought’s impact, resulting in restricted access to markets for many poor farmers, the U.N. report said. In Uruzgan province, farmers have been cut off from the market in the provincial capital, Tirin Kot, because of fighting. In Helmand, where insurgents control or influence most of the territory, farmers need special permission to bring their goods to markets in areas under government control.

Ahmad Shah Khairi, head of the Helmand agriculture department, said the province had less than half an inch of rain all year.

That local farmers prioritize the growth of lucrative poppies over wheat and other cereal crops made the food shortage even worse, he said.

In the southwestern province of Nimroz, officials expect the drought to affect 80 percent of the spring harvest and the summer harvest to be totally devastated. The province has two main rivers flowing through it, noted Mohammad Akbar Sharifi, acting director of agriculture of Nimroz, but one, the Khasrod, went dry. Whereas farmers cultivated 81,500 acres, of land this past spring, he said, only 3,212 acres were farmed this year.

In the northwestern province of Badghis, where the population of about 700,000 is dependent on agriculture, officials reported a 60 percent decrease in the wheat harvest.

With pasturelands dried up in the northeast of the country, an estimated 1.5 million goats and sheep have been struggling to find food, the U.N. report said.