Officials said the FBI’s “limited” supplemental background check of Kavanaugh could be finished by Monday morning and could include as few as four interviews.

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WASHINGTON — The FBI moved on Sunday to quickly complete an abbreviated investigation into allegations of sexual misconduct against Judge Brett M. Kavanaugh, even as Democrats demanded more information about the inquiry’s scope, warning that its apparent constraints could make it a “farce.”

As agents conducted their review, which involves interviewing four potential witnesses, a college professor in North Carolina became the latest in a series of former Yale classmates of Kavanaugh’s to accuse him of giving untruthful testimony by minimizing his use of alcohol when he was a student.

The professor, Chad Ludington, said he frequently saw Kavanaugh “staggering from alcohol consumption” during their student years. He said he planned to tell his story to the FBI at its office in Raleigh, North Carolina, on Monday. A spokesman for the White House declined to comment on Ludington’s allegations.

Officials said the FBI’s “limited” supplemental background check of Kavanaugh could be finished by Monday morning. Set in motion late last week by three Senate Republicans, the inquiry was supposed to shed further light on accusations that Kavanaugh engaged in sexual misconduct during his high school and college years and help resolve the fierce national debate over whether he should win confirmation to the Supreme Court.

But the investigation’s apparent narrow reach has infuriated the judge’s critics, who said he should be subjected to a wide-ranging examination of his drinking and possible sexual misconduct.

Instead, the FBI was directed by the White House and Senate Republicans to interview just four people: Mark Judge and P.J. Smyth, high school friends of Kavanaugh’s; Leland Keyser, a high school friend of one of Kavanaugh’s accusers, Christine Blasey Ford; and Deborah Ramirez, another of the judge’s accusers.

Blasey, a California university professor, has accused Kavanaugh of trying to rape her during a high school gathering, and Ramirez, a classmate of Judge Kavanaugh’s at Yale, has said he exposed himself to her at a dorm room party. Kavanaugh has forcefully denied both allegations.

In testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee on Thursday, Kavanaugh also denied the possibility that he had ever drunk alcohol to the point of blacking out. But Ludington, a former basketball player at Yale, said in a statement that he could “unequivocally say” that Kavanaugh had “not told the truth.”

He said Kavanaugh had often become “belligerent and aggressive” while intoxicated during his first two years at Yale. Ludington recalled one incident in which he said Kavanaugh threw a beer in someone’s face, “starting a fight that ended with one of our mutual friends in jail.”

That description was challenged by Chris Dudley, a former NBA player and close friend of Kavanaugh’s who attended Yale and played basketball with Ludington. Dudley said he was certain that he “never, ever saw Brett Kavanaugh black out” from drinking, and “never, ever saw him act inappropriately toward any woman in the 35 years that I’ve known him.”

The dueling statements emerged as the political combat around Kavanaugh’s confirmation process intensified. Democrats lashed out over the size and shape of the inquiry, saying it threatened to become a sham that would deepen, rather than help heal, the country’s divisions about Kavanaugh’s nomination.

Sen. Mazie K. Hirono, D-Hawaii and a member of the Judiciary Committee, said on ABC’s “This Week” that any investigation that limits whom the FBI can interview and which leads agents can follow would be a “farce.”

Sen. Amy Klobuchar, D-Minn., who is also on the committee, described what she said was micromanaging from the White House: “You can’t interview this person, you can’t look at this time period, you can only look at these people from one side of the street from when they were growing up.”

“I mean, come on,” she said on CNN’s “State of the Union.”

Democrats were to some degree in the dark about the inquiry’s parameters. In a letter to Donald F. McGahn II, the White House counsel, and Christopher A. Wray, the FBI director, the top Democrat on the Judiciary Committee asked for a copy of the directive sent by the White House to the bureau laying out the scope of the investigation.

“If the FBI requests any expansion beyond the initial directive, please provide the names of any additional witnesses or evidence,” Sen. Dianne Feinstein of California wrote in the letter.

It is not unusual for the White House to specify the scope of a request for additional background information on a nominee. No evidence has emerged that the White House has forbidden any investigative steps, and President Donald Trump has said he wants agents “to interview whoever they deem appropriate, at their discretion.”

The Democratic complaints about the inquiry have stoked Trump’s anger at McGahn and Senate Republicans for how they have handled Kavanaugh’s nomination, according to two people briefed on the matter.

After Blasey’s accusations came to light, Republicans on the Judiciary Committee invited her to testify. She riveted the nation Thursday as she recounted what she said was a rape attempt by a drunken Kavanaugh when they were in high school. The next day, three Republican senators — Jeff Flake of Arizona, Susan Collins of Maine and Lisa Murkowski of Alaska — demanded the renewed background check before proceeding to a full Senate vote.

In a call to Sen. Mitch McConnell, the Senate majority leader, nine days ago from his Bedminster, New Jersey, country club, Trump unleashed an expletive-filled tirade, telling McConnell that he had let the process get away from him.

Trump later told associates that the Republicans and McGahn had erred by not quickly holding a full Senate vote on Kavanaugh’s nomination Friday, after the Judiciary Committee advanced it along party lines, the people said. The president said senators like Flake who were wavering about the nomination should have been forced to vote against Kavanaugh and suffer the political consequences, the people said.

Publicly, though, Trump directed his ire at Democrats, accusing them in a tweet of playing politics by complaining about the investigation and saying they would never be satisfied with it.

“Wow! Just starting to hear the Democrats, who are only thinking Obstruct and Delay, are starting to put out the word that the ‘time’ and ‘scope’ of FBI looking into Judge Kavanaugh and witnesses is not enough,” he wrote. “Hello! For them, it will never be enough.”

Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, denied on Sunday that the White House was playing any improper role in the process, saying McGahn had “allowed the Senate to dictate” the terms of the investigation, and that Trump would stay out of it.

People familiar with the investigation said Republican senators had developed the list of four potential witnesses for the FBI to interview, and shared it with the White House.

Former FBI officials familiar with the process said agents are free to follow up if they find evidence of criminal activity. The rules for background checks require that agents ask the White House if they want to expand the scope of their investigation or interview other witnesses.

A lawyer for Blasey, who testified that she was willing to cooperate with the authorities, said Sunday that she had not been contacted by the FBI. “We have not heard from the FBI despite repeated efforts to speak with them,” Debra S. Katz, the lawyer, said in a brief telephone interview Sunday morning.

Kavanaugh portrayed himself during a Fox News interview last week and in his Senate testimony Thursday as enjoying a beer or two as a high school and college student, but not as someone who often drank to excess during those years.

A number of people who overlapped with Kavanaugh at Yale or at Georgetown Preparatory School, the Catholic high school he attended — and who contacted the FBI this weekend to share information about him or his fraternity — expressed frustration with the limited scope of the background investigation.

One of those people, Tad Low, who was a year behind Kavanaugh at Yale, said that he spoke to a low-level agent Saturday, but had heard nothing since, an experience repeated by a number of other Yale graduates.

A Georgetown Prep classmate of Kavanaugh’s said he contacted Klobuchar’s office to report concerns about what he saw as the judge’s dishonesty about drinking. The senator’s office told the classmate that his information would be passed on to the FBI, but by Sunday evening he had not been contacted by anyone at the bureau.

Sen. Patrick J. Leahy, D-Vt., a member of the Judiciary Committee, said accusations of heavy drinking were “directly relevant” to the sexual misconduct charges against Kavanaugh. He said, “If the FBI investigation isn’t artificially limited in scope by the president to become meaningless, it will have to look into these discrepancies.”

But Collins, a moderate whose vote could determine Kavanaugh’s fate, said Sunday that “I am confident that the FBI will follow up on any leads that result from the interviews.”

As Democrats tried to sound alarms that the White House may be constraining the FBI’s work, one key member of the party indicated that if the Democrats won control of the House in November and Kavanaugh made it through the Senate, he would have no choice but to more fully investigate the claims against him.

“If he is on the Supreme Court and the Senate hasn’t investigated, the House will have to,” the lawmaker, Rep. Jerrold Nadler of New York, the top Democrat on the House Judiciary Committee, said on “This Week.” “We would have to investigate any credible allegations, certainly of perjury and other things that haven’t been properly looked into before.”

Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., said his party should open an investigation of its own into Senate Democrats’ interactions with Blasey. He accused Democrats of leaking the existence of a letter she had written about her allegations and disclosing the existence of an additional unrelated anonymous accusations against Kavanaugh.