How to handle employees whose attitudes have begun to affect co-workers and the company.

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Every manager has to deal with a certain amount of pessimistic, hostile or uncooperative behavior. But a hard-core negative attitude that starts with just one employee can quickly infect an entire department (or a whole company) if the manager doesn’t rein it in quickly.

Here are 10 tips for handling employees whose negative behavior has begun to affect co-workers and the company.

Don’t get drawn into the employees’ negative mind-set. Listen to their points, but don’t temper your own realistic optimism.

Avoid getting into an argument. Negative people thrive on the negative energy of arguments. When possible, point out areas of agreement in order to build rapport. Keep your cool.

Set standards. Spell out the consequences of negative behavior, such as decreased morale. Base them on behavior, not attitude.

For example, you may not be able to change the fact that an employee doesn’t like a certain company policy. But you can discipline employees if they don’t follow the policy or are insubordinate in gossiping about it.

Ask questions. Force the employee to be specific about what is creating his or her negative thoughts and actions.

Try role-playing. Ask the employee to put himself in your shoes and pretend he has been asked to resolve the problem. That way, you will have the employee contribute his ideas for the best possible solutions.

Involving the employee may also lead to more positive feelings about the solution or outcome since he or she had a hand in creating it.

Listen carefully. Use active listening to ensure that you’re understanding the employee correctly.

Don’t lower your expectations of them. A negative attitude doesn’t necessarily mean a poor performer.

Empower employees. Stop the “victim” mentality from forming. Allow employees to take responsibility for “good” events, so they can make them happen again; and for the “bad” events, so they have the power to change them in the future.

Solicit feedback. Always ask for employees’ opinions before making major decisions that will affect them. The more you listen to employees, and take an active interest in their concerns, the less likely they will be to complain to each other.

Hire right. Identify negative people before they’re hired. During the interview, listen for feelings that “life isn’t fair” in response to questions like: “Have you ever felt you’ve been treated unfairly in the past?” “What were your chief concerns about management in your previous jobs?” and, “What would you have changed if you were the manager at your last job?”