Women who work in technology often find, as one put it, that there are “a lot of things I have to put up with in the culture of tech.” As a result, many are leaving the industry.

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Ana Redmond launched into a technology career for an exciting challenge and a chance to change the world. She was well equipped to succeed, too: An ambitious math and science whiz, she could code faster, with fewer errors, than anyone she knew.

In 2011, after 15 years, she left before achieving a management position.

Garann Means became a programmer for similar reasons. After 13 years, she quit too, citing a hostile and unwelcoming environment for women.

Neither expects to ever go back.

“There are a lot of things that piled up over the years,” Means said. “I didn’t know how to move forward. There was a lot I had to put up with in the culture of tech. It just didn’t seem worth it.”

That’s a huge problem for the tech economy. According to the industry group Code.org, computing jobs will more than double by 2020, to 1.4 million. If women continue to leave the field, an already dire shortage of qualified tech workers will grow worse. Last summer, Google, Facebook, Apple and other big tech companies released figures showing that men outnumbered women 4 to 1 or more in their technical sectors.

It’s why the industry is so eager to hire women and minorities. For decades tech companies have relied on a workforce of whites and Asians, most of them men.

Plenty of programs now encourage girls and minorities to embrace technology at a young age. But amid all the publicity for those efforts, one truth is little discussed: Qualified women are leaving the tech industry in droves.

Women in tech say filling the pipeline of talent won’t do much good if women keep quitting — it’s like trying to fill a leaking bucket.

A Harvard Business Review study from 2008 found that as many as 50 percent of women working in science, engineering and technology will, over time, leave because of hostile work environments.

The reasons are varied. According to the Harvard study, they include a “hostile” male culture, a sense of isolation and lack of a clear career path. An updated study in 2014 found the reasons hadn’t significantly changed.

Most women in the Harvard study said the attitudes holding them back are subtle, and hence more difficult to challenge.

Redmond, now 40, didn’t want to leave her tech career. But she felt stuck, with no way to advance. She said male co-workers seemed to oppose her. “It was like they were trying to push me out at every stage,” she said.

She had built a prototype for a travel website, she said, a feature to auto-suggest cities and airports based on the first three letters typed into the search field, fixing a long-standing problem.

Her male bosses told her she’d built it without permission. Then they said only architects within the company could pitch features — and all the architects were male. In the end, the project was handed to someone else, and she was assigned to less interesting tasks.

“They just kept asking me to prove myself over and over again,” she said.

As an isolated incident, Redmond wouldn’t have thought much of it. But she noticed a pattern. She said she was often passed up for no apparent reason, and her projects were frequently taken away or dismissed.

Tracy Chou, 27, a well-known engineer at Pinterest, said she was once bypassed at a previous startup because her boss thought a new male hire was more qualified. When Chou pressed for an explanation, she recalled him saying: “It’s just this feeling I have that this person will be able to get stuff done faster than you.”

“The continuous pattern of all these people treating me like I didn’t know what was going on, or excluding me from conversations and not trusting my assertions, all these things added up and it felt like there was an undercurrent of sexism,” she said.

It’s not just employees. Female tech entrepreneurs face similar frictions.

Wayne Sutton, a partner at BuildUp, a startup that seeks out companies founded by women and minorities, said he recently watched a woman introduce herself to a venture capitalist only to be told that she should get a job instead of starting her own business “because you’re not going to make it here.”

No solution yet

So far, no company has found a solution for retaining women.

Google, whose engineering workforce is only 17 percent female, introduced a training program in 2013 that aims to fight cultural biases. Employees play word-association games, and are often surprised by how quickly they link engineering and coding professions with men, and less technical jobs with women.

Pinterest’s technical team is 21 percent female. It created an engineering-promotion committee to ensure no one is overlooked. Gender, race, ethnicity and the like aren’t given special priority, but the committee is charged with making sure those issues don’t get in the way of advancement. The company also has a recruiter whose focus is diversity.

Facebook, with a technical workforce that is 15 percent female, gathers its female employees from around the world for a leadership day filled with talks, workshops and support. Women also organize themselves into Facebook groups to share knowledge and experiences. The company also offers special benefits like four months of paid maternity and paternity leave, and free classes for women on returning to the workplace.

Sensitivity training, mentoring, instruction in negotiating tactics and other “incremental” measures won’t boost the numbers, said Joan Williams, law professor at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law and co-author of “What Works for Women at Work: Four Patterns Working Women Need to Know.”

Companies need to research the biases that prevent women from getting ahead, she said, and then devise “interrupters.” Instead of single training sessions, companies need to make systemic changes, she said.

High ranks

Although high-profile women such as Yahoo’s Marissa Mayer, Hewlett-Packard’s Meg Whitman and IBM’s Ginni Rometty mark glass-ceiling victories for women, most tech companies are headed by men.

And simply having a female CEO does not in itself solve the problem. Men are crucial for creating an environment where women thrive, said Scarlett Sieber, 27, vice president of operations at tech company Infomous.

“Men need to be the ones that are advocating and pushing for women to rise up, and not just rely on the 1 percent of women who are already at the top to do it,” Sieber said.

Sieber says the entire industry needs to do what it’s so good at: cause disruption.

Until then, women like Redmond and Means will keep leaving.