Share story

In Syfy’s television reality competition “Opposite Worlds,” Twitter put unprecedented power in the hands of viewers, supplying them with the ability to reward popular contestants with a luxurious spa day while punishing others with a less savory task: cleaning human excrement.

The little blue birdie has fluttered into the writers room on Fox’s “Sleepy Hollow,” inspiring one episode to address viewers’ dismay, voiced loudly on Twitter, over the central character’s Revolutionary War-era attire. For a humorous few moments, Ichabod Crane doffs his period costume for a pair of uncomfortably contemporary skinny jeans.

These shows are just a sample of the sorts of experimentation being done as network executives and producers navigate social media (and interactivity) to attract viewers to the living-room TV and keep them engaged.

About one-third of all prime-time shows employ some Twitter element — from NBC’s “The Voice,” which lets viewers turn to Twitter to “save” performers whom judges have eliminated, to ABC’s “Scandal,” whose actors converse online with viewers as each episode is telecast. Just this month, Twitter cemented its reputation as TV’s favorite follower during the Oscar telecast when host Ellen Degeneres’ star-studded “selfie” set a record for most retweets.

In a nutshell: @Twitter is #trendingwithTV more than ever b4.

“What has popped up in the last five years is TV viewers have a connection to show runners and actors that is more immediate and transparent,” said Geoffrey Long, who explores transmedia experiences for the Annenberg Innovation Lab at the University of Southern California. “There’s an active dialogue that is no longer heavily one-sided. We’re still in the early stages of how that changes things.”

The social network has carefully cultivated the Twitter-TV association. The San Francisco company forged a partnership with Nielsen to produce ratings based on the audience for TV-related conversations.

It struck partnerships with major networks, including CBS, NBC, Fox and ESPN, as well as with sports leagues. Advertisers similarly have jumped into Twitter’s nest, with major brands including Budweiser, Coca-Cola, Doritos, Honda and H&M all incorporating Twitter hashtags as part of their Super Bowl ad campaigns.

“It’s past experimental for many agencies. It’s proven to drive engagement at scale,” said Mike Margolin, senior vice president of audience strategy for RPA, Honda’s ad agency.

Live tweeting

Twitter’s head of television, Fred Graver, said 85 percent of the network shows that premiered last fall were accompanied by live tweeting, and 30 to 40 percent of prime-time shows continue to maintain a presence on the social network.

Hashtags, those short phrases that follow a pound sign, are plastered on corners of the TV screen, not-so-subtly guiding viewers on their episodic tweeting adventure.

Television-network executives have sought to reach viewers on a variety of social-media platforms, from Facebook to visually oriented sites such as Instagram and Pinterest.

With some 241 million people using Twitter each month, networks have been encouraging actors such as Sarah Michelle Gellar of CBS’ “The Crazy Ones” and Natasha Lyonne of Netflix’s “Orange Is the New Black” to join the digital bandwagon to help build buzz.

Of course, not everyone has given way to peer pressure (some holdouts: Andy Samberg of Fox’s “Brooklyn Nine-Nine,” and the cast of NBC’s “The Blacklist”).

Misha Collins, who plays the angel Castiel on the long-running CW drama “Supernatural,” said social media has contributed to the show’s longevity. He said Jared Padalecki and Jensen Ackles, who play brothers following in their father’s footsteps as demon hunters, cultivated a connection with fans when the show premiered in 2005.

“Jared and Jensen started going to fan conventions early on. It fed this live interaction with the fans,” Collins said.

Sound of chirping

And it’s not just the stars — the creative minds behind TV’s most popular shows have awoken from their deep slumber to the sound of the chirping. Some writers rooms have adopted Twitter accounts to engage with viewers, cognizant of its pervasiveness and how it applies to 21st-century storytelling.

“It’s become an essential part of our storytelling and our shows,” said Alex Kurtzman, executive producer of “Sleepy Hollow,” the Fox supernatural drama.

“There (once was) a distinction between that thing that used to be off to the side, and other people handled, and the way we’re actually breaking stories in the room for the episodes that air on television. It’s all part of the same process now.”

The show’s writers take turns tweeting during each broadcast, opening the door to the writers room and giving viewers insights into story choices and character motivation.

The writers pay attention to fan discussions — and in some cases, have introduced plot elements in response to comments about the show, a modern retelling of Washington Irving’s “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.”

Crane’s appearance in skinny jeans was a signal to viewers that the writers were paying attention to their comments.

“We all felt very strongly that it’s like asking Superman to take off his cape. Then he’s not Superman,” Kurtzman said. “But there were so many people online who had so much to say about his clothes, we sat down in the writers room and tried to come up with creative ways to address those concerns.”

Impact on shows

The backlash on Twitter and on other online platforms was part of what prompted “The Good Wife” writers to wrap up more quickly a story line involving Kalinda (Archie Punjabi) and her mysterious estranged husband in Season 4.

When two characters on ABC Family’s “Pretty Little Liars” — Emily and Maya — broke up, fans gathered online to orchestrate a protest and sent 10,000 pink pens to the writers.

For various reasons they were unable to get Maya back into the show, but the writers decided to acknowledge all the fan feedback. A subsequent episode features a scene where a stack of those pens made a cameo.

USC’s Long foresees a day when the format of the medium — 140 or fewer characters — influences how beats of a story are told.

“I think what we’re going to see more and more of, are TV writers thinking and writing in ways that lend themselves to quotability and spreadability,” he said.