Millions of cars are recalled each year, and roughly 8 million have already been in 2021, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Getting a notice from the automaker that your vehicle is among them and has a safety deficiency is not only alarming, but it can also lead to a flood of questions.

What must I do next? How do I get this taken care of? Is this going to cost me anything?

Even more pressing is how urgent it is to get the problem remedied. The answer is that while minor maintenance can slide a bit without causing major trouble, the safety concerns addressed by a recall are not a footnote for the “maybe someday” section of your to-do list.

Recalls vary in urgency, and sometimes repairs cannot be done by the dealer immediately because replacement parts are not available; it can take months until they are. But as a recent South Carolina case makes clear, procrastination can be deadly.

In January, the driver of a 2002 Honda Accord died as a result of a crash in which the car’s air bag deployed. As the 19th U.S. death caused by shrapnel from a ruptured Takata air bag inflater, it was hardly unprecedented. But this time there was a twist: Honda, which recalled the car in 2011, said it had tried more than 100 times to reach the car’s owner by mail, phone and by in-person visits. The faulty inflaters had never been replaced.

The Takata recall, the largest in history, involves 100 million inflaters, including 67 million in the United States. And these recalls are not all a decade old. As recently as March, Ford recalled 2.6 million cars, trucks and sport utility vehicles to replace Takata driver-side air bag components.

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Action may be taken for safety threats that arise even when the vehicles are parked. In March, several Hyundai and Genesis models were recalled to correct electrical short circuits that caused a fire risk. In that case, the traffic safety agency advised owners to “park their cars outside and away from homes, other structures and other flammable materials” to prevent property loss.

They are always about safety.

Recalls are safety issues, even if the danger is sometimes not readily apparent. Correcting the problem should be done as quickly as possible, and, yes, the automakers will pay for it.

They are required to contact owners by mail, but if you’ve been living away from your normal home during the pandemic, there’s a chance you missed the notice. And if you bought a used car, the recall notice may not have caught up with you yet.

It’s easy to check whether a vehicle has been recalled by entering the 17-digit vehicle identification number on the safety agency website — nhtsa.gov/recalls. The VIN can be found on the car’s registration and often on the insurance card. It’s also visible through the glass on the lower edge of the windshield on the driver’s side.

Checking for recalls is a must, especially if you are buying a used car. Using that search, you will learn if the vehicle was recalled in the past 15 calendar years and whether the issue has been addressed. The report covers major automakers, motorcycle manufacturers and some medium- to heavy-truck manufacturers.

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If the vehicle has not been recalled or if it has but the defect has been repaired, you will get this message: 0 Unrepaired Recalls associated with this VIN. Recently announced recalls may not show up because it takes time for the VINs to be identified, so you may need to check back.

The possibilities: Repair, replace, refund.

Recalls are carried out by the automaker but can be ordered by the safety agency. The process can start when a carmaker discovers a problem during regular quality checks, or defects emerge through the dealer service network. By law, when an automaker learns of a safety defect, it must notify the safety agency promptly.

The process can also begin with consumer complaints filed on the agency database. Those complaints are reviewed, and if an analysis deems that further action is needed, an investigation is opened. If that finds a problem, a recall is initiated. In practice, automakers typically begin recalls on their own, before the agency intervenes.

The safety agency monitors the process to ensure that customer notices are properly issued and that repairs are tracked.

The automaker can choose to repair the defect, replace the vehicle with one of identical or similar specifications, or refund the full purchase price (adjusted for depreciation).

If you’ve already paid for repairs that would have been done under the recall, the automaker often must reimburse you.