Retail sales delivered the weakest performance in five months in July as shoppers shunned autos while they paid more for gas. With the mass mailings...

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WASHINGTON — Retail sales delivered the weakest performance in five months in July as shoppers shunned autos while they paid more for gas.

With the mass mailings of $92 billion in rebate checks now just a memory, there is concern the fragile economy could slow even more in the second half of this year.

The Commerce Department reported today that retail sales fell 0.1 percent last month, the first decline since a 0.5 percent tumble in February. It was a worse showing than the flat reading economists had been expecting and followed a revised but still weak 0.3 percent growth reading for June.

Analysts said retail sales would have been more feeble without the $92 billion in rebate payments the government sent out in May, June and July. Those checks helped to counter plunging home prices, rising unemployment and soaring gasoline prices.

The bulk mailings are now over, though, leaving economists worried about what will happen next to spending.

“Cautious and uncertain consumers are watching their wallets and with the back-to-school shopping season under way, that does not bode well for retailers,” said Joel Naroff, chief economist at Naroff Economic Advisors.

Department store operator Macy’s said today that its second-quarter earnings dropped slightly and warned that full-year profits will be below Wall Street expectations.

Susan Taylor-Demming, of Naperville, Ill., said the squeeze on the family budget has meant, among other things, that she drove to New Jersey with her two daughters for a summer vacation rather than fly.

“Play dates instead of water park adventures,” she added.

Gasoline prices have been falling since hitting a nationwide high of $4.11 a gallon in July and that should help consumer spending in coming months, economists said. But they wonder if that will be enough to offset the loss of the stimulus checks.

David Wyss, chief economist at Standard & Poor’s in New York, said consumers will spend about 60 percent of the money they receive in the first three months after getting the check, deciding to save the rest. That would be similar to the pattern seen when the government used tax rebates to fight the 2001 recession.

The overall economy grew at an annual rate of 1.9 percent in the April-June quarter, helped in part by the stimulus payments. Wyss said he was looking for growth of around 2 percent in the gross domestic product (GDP) in the current July-September quarter. But he forecast that GDP would shrink in the final three months of this year and the first three months of next year, as the impact of the rebate checks wears off.

Two consecutive quarters of falling GDP is the classic definition of a recession. Other economists said they also were looking for negative GDP then.

Auto sales fell by 2.4 percent in July — another dismal month for automakers who saw sales activity plunge to the lowest level in 16 years as the weak economy and rising job layoffs severely dampened demand.

Excluding the big drop in autos, retail sales would have posted a 0.4 percent increase. While that was a positive reading, it was still the weakest showing for sales excluding autos in five months.

Much of what little strength there was in July came from a 0.8 percent jump in sales at gasoline stations because of surging prices rather than increased demand.

The Federal Highway Administration said today that Americans drove 12.2 billion fewer miles in June than the same month a year earlier.

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