Washington has long been a fossil fuel depot. But changes in how and where we get our oil — and the addition of proposals to export coal — are increasing the risk of spills and major accidents. Here is how fossil fuel distribution is changing.







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Bellingham

Boundary Pass

Haro Strait


BoundaryPass


HaroStrait

Bellingham

Anacortes

Ferndale

Cherry Point

Ferndale

Anacortes

Sources: Esri; Kinder Morgan; National Mining Association; Energy Information Administration; USGS; Sightline Institute; Washington State Department of Transportation; energyalmanac.ca.gov; Puget Sound Harbor Safety Committee 2013 Annual Report of Feb. 13, 2014

Reporting by CRAIG WELCHGraphic by MARK NOWLIN / THE SEATTLE TIMES


Increasing traffic by rail and sea introduces new risks to Puget SoundEnergy companies now transport oil here by train from North Dakota, and one company wants to boost its pipeline from Alberta’s oil sands. Both pose dramatically increased spill risks. Adding ship traffic from a proposed coal terminal at Cherry Point, which could supply coal from the Powder River Basin to Asia, would increase the possibility of oil-tanker collisions.

OIL-SANDS DEPOSITS


BAKKEN OIL FIELD


COAL DEPOSITS


TERMINALS


CRUDE-OIL PIPELINES


MAJOR RAIL-FREIGHT LINES


CRUDE-OIL U.S. TANKER TRAFFIC


Decreasing tanker traffic out of AlaskaHistorically, most oil-tanker traffic through the Strait of Juan de Fuca has come from Valdez. But tanker traffic from Alaska has dropped substantially in recent years as oil production on the North Slope declines.


COAL-EXPORT TERMINALS


Articulated tug and barge (ATB) traffic at all-time highIn the last 15 years, companies have begun using barges to transport oil in Puget Sound, often from places they never have before, like the Columbia River, where oil now arrives from North Dakota by train.
Pacific Ocean
BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA

CALIFORNIA


Anacortes


Vancouver


Los Angeles area


Oxnard


Santa Maria


San Francisco Bay area

Prince Rupert

ProposedTrans Mountainpipeline expansion


CRUDE-OIL PIPELINES


MAJOR RAIL-FREIGHT LINES


Operating


Proposed


Operating


U.S.


ARTICULATED TUG AND BARGE (ATB) TRAFFIC


Canadian

Alaskatanker traffic
ATBs fromColumbia River
CRUDE-OIL TANKER TRAFFIC

CRUDE-OIL-BY-RAIL TERMINALS


COAL-EXPORT TERMINALS


KEY

Bellingham
Victoria
Westshore
Burnaby
Vancouver

Anacortes

Port Angeles
Neptune
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island

Trans Mountain pipeline


Proposed Trans Mountain pipeline expansion

Tanker trafficfrom Vancouver

CherryPoint


Ferndale


Deadhorse

Anchorage
Fairbanks

ALASKA


National PetroleumReserve


Edmonton


Fort McMurray

ALBERTA

SASKATCHEWAN

MANITOBA

Beaufort Sea


Kuparuk and Prudhoe BayOil Fields

MONTANA

S. DAKOTA

IDAHO

OREGON


Powder River Basin coal field

N. DAKOTA


Coal deposits


Coal deposits

Juneau

CANADA
Gulf ofAlaska
Trans-AlaskaPipeline

KEY


Oil-sands Deposits


Bakken Oil Field

123
285
265

ExistingTrans Mountain pipeline


Valdez

WYOMING

UNITEDSTATES
348
Projected:

CANADA

U.S.





































60
34
MONTHLY TRAFFIC
YEARLYTRAFFIC
Projected:

BoundaryPass


HaroStrait

San Juan Islands

Strait of Juan de Fuca
5
Current:
Cherry Point
Ferndale
Bellingham
Vancouver

Strait of Georgia

Anacortes

Boundary Pass

BRITISHCOLUMBIA

U. S.

CANADA

Haro Strait

Strait of Juan de Fuca


Trans Mountain pipeline

Oil from Alberta

Proposed pipelineexpansion

MILES

25

0

Seattle


Port of GraysHarbor


Tacoma


Longview


Portland


Port Westward


Vancouver

Port Angeles

WASHINGTON

OREGON


Columbia River

Aberdeen







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2

Proposed


Rail traffic to Western Washington terminals
Olympia
248
183
MILES
50
0



Increasing Canadian tanker traffic out ofVancouverKinder Morgan, a North American-based energy company, says if it gets the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion, tanker traffic would rise from 5 to 34 tankers a month. That would push yearly tanker traveling out of Vancouver from 60 to 348.


NUMBER OF TANKERS