WASHINGTON — The faces of more than 120 million people are in searchable photo databases that state officials assembled to prevent driver’s-license fraud but that increasingly are used by police to identify suspects, accomplices and even innocent bystanders in criminal investigations.
The facial databases have grown rapidly in recent years and generally operate with few legal safeguards beyond the requirement that searches are conducted for “law- enforcement purposes.” Amid rising concern about the National Security Agency’s (NSA) high-tech surveillance aimed at foreigners, it is these state-level facial-recognition programs that more typically involve Americans.
The most widely used systems were honed on the battlefields of Afghanistan and Iraq as soldiers sought to identify insurgents.
The increasingly widespread deployment of the technology in the United States has helped police find murderers, bank robbers and drug dealers, many of whom leave behind images on surveillance videos or social-media sites that can be compared against official photo databases.
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But law-enforcement use of such facial searches is blurring the traditional boundaries between criminal and noncriminal databases, putting images of people never arrested in what amount to perpetual digital lineups.
The most advanced systems allow police to run searches from laptop computers in their patrol cars and offer access to the FBI and other federal authorities.
Such open access has caused a backlash in some of the few states where there has been debate.
As the databases grow larger and increasingly connected across jurisdictional boundaries, critics warn that authorities are developing what amounts to a national identification system — based on the distinct geography of each human face.
“Where is government going to go with that years from now?” said Louisiana state Rep. Brett Geymann, a conservative Republican who has fought the creation of such systems. “Here your driver’s license essentially becomes a national ID card.”
Facial-recognition technology is part of a new generation of biometric tools that once were the stuff of science fiction but are increasingly used by authorities.
Though not yet as reliable as fingerprints, these technologies can help determine identity through individual variations in irises, skin textures, vein patterns, palm prints and a person’s gait.
Thirty-seven states, including Washington, use facial-recognition technology in their driver’s-license registries, a Washington Post review found.
At least 26 of those allow state, local or federal law-enforcement agencies to search — or request searches — of photo databases in an attempt to learn the identities of people considered relevant to investigations. Washington generally does not.
The technology produces investigative leads, not definitive identifications. But research efforts are focused on pushing the software to the point where it can reliably produce the names of people in the time it takes them to walk by a video camera.