In the essay, “Are We Alone in the Universe?” the statesman showed powers of reason “like a scientist,” said Mario Livio, an astrophysicist who read the rarely seen draft and wrote about it in an article published in Nature magazine.

Share story

LONDON — Even as he was preparing for the biggest struggle of his life, leading Britain in its fight against Nazi Germany, Winston Churchill had something else on his mind: extraterrestrials.

In a newly unearthed essay sent to his publisher on Oct. 16, 1939 — weeks after Britain entered World War II and Churchill became part of the wartime Cabinet — and later revised, he was pondering the likelihood of life on other planets.

Churchill, who went on to become prime minister during much of World War II and again from 1951 to 1955, was so enthralled by the subject that he ordered a suspected sighting of an unidentified flying object by the Royal Air Force to be kept a secret for 50 years to avoid “mass panic.”

In the 11-page essay, “Are We Alone in the Universe?” the statesman showed powers of reason “like a scientist,” said Mario Livio, an astrophysicist who read the rarely seen draft and wrote about it in an article published Wednesday in Nature magazine.

Most Read Stories

Save 75% on digital access today.

“The most amazing thing is that he started this essay when Europe was on the brink of war and there he is, musing about a question about a scientific topic that is really a question out of curiosity,” he said in an interview.

Churchill first defines what life is, and then details the requirements for life to exist and progressively expands his reasoning to the existence of life in other solar systems, Livio said. “He’s really thinking about this,’’ Livio said, “and though he didn’t have all the knowledge at hand, he thinks about this with the logic of a scientist.”

Churchill’s interest in science stemmed from his early years as an army officer in British-ruled India, where he had crates of books, including Charles Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species,” shipped to him by his mother.

He later became friends, for a time, with the writer H.G. Wells, whose novel “The War of the Worlds,” about Martians invading Britain, had been adapted, by Orson Welles, for a famous CBS radio broadcast in 1938, a year before Churchill wrote his article. (Churchill once said Wells’ “The Time Machine” was one of the books he would like to take with him to purgatory.)

Churchill argued that it was probable that extraterrestrial life existed in the universe. This was years before Frank Drake, the U.S. astronomer and astrophysicist, presented in 1961 his theory about the number of communicative civilizations in the cosmos. “It is astonishing that Churchill wasn’t a scientist and yet he showed such an interest in science,” Livio said.

The manuscript was passed on to the National Churchill Museum in Fulton, Missouri, the site of Churchill’s famed 1946 Iron Curtain speech, in the 1980s by Wendy Reves, the wife of Churchill’s publisher, Emery Reves. It had been overlooked for years until Timothy Riley, who became the museum’s director last year, stumbled upon it recently. Soon after news of the discovery, two other copies were found in a separate archive in Britain.

Although the article was sent to Reves in 1939, it was not published. Churchill revised it a number of times in the 1950s.

In his article, Churchill wrote: “I am not sufficiently conceited to think that my sun is the only one with a family of planets.”

“I, for one, am not so immensely impressed by the success we are making of our civilization here that I am prepared to think we are the only spot in this immense universe which contains living, thinking creatures,” he wrote, “or that we are the highest type of mental and physical development which has ever appeared in the vast compass of space and time.”

Largely self-educated in the sciences, Churchill had boundless curiosity for practically anything, an attitude he once described as “picking up a few things as I went along.”

He wrote about 30 million words in his lifetime, including wartime speeches, an African travelogue, a book on oil painting, a lengthy memoir and an essay on an imagined invasion of Russia when he was just 15. For his body of work, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953.

Welding an active imagination with scientific thought, Churchill produced a few madcap ideas — which he called “funnies” — that he championed while he was prime minister, as a means to defeat Nazi Germany.

There was Operation Habakkuk, an imagined fleet of aircraft carriers made from wood pulp and ice to fight German U-boats in the mid-Atlantic. Then there was the Great Panjandrum, an enormous, rocket-propelled wheel packed with explosives.

While none of these ideas came into being (the giant wheel having run amok in the testing stage), science was not just a hobby for Churchill.

He was the first prime minister to hire a science adviser. Frederick Lindemann, a physicist, became Churchill’s “on tap” expert and once described him as a “scientist who had missed his vocation,” said Andrew Nahum, who curated an exhibition on Churchill and science at the Science Museum in London. He found a separate copy of the essay in the Churchill Archives Center at the University of Cambridge.

Churchill also met regularly with scientists such as Bernard Lovell, the father of radio astronomy and the Lovell telescope.

Churchill founded in 1958 the British equivalent of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at Cambridge — Churchill College — which has since produced 32 Nobel Prize winners.

In the interwar period, Churchill wrote numerous scientific articles, including one called “Death Rays” and another titled “Are there Men on the Moon?” In 1924, he published a text asking readers “Shall We All Commit Suicide?” in which he speculated that technological advances could lead to the creation of a small bomb that was powerful enough to destroy an entire town.