The Russian Proton-M rocket that blew up seconds after blastoff Tuesday destroyed three satellites worth $200 million, spurred authorities to indefinitely delay two other launches this month and damaged the image of Russia’s lucrative commercial space industry.
The rocket, which appeared to stall and roll about 10 seconds after it was launched, also spewed 600 tons of toxic fuel across the launchpad and surrounding steppe of the Baikonur facility in Kazakhstan, raising fears of contamination and further strain in Moscow’s relationship with its former Soviet sister republic.
Russia rents the Baikonur facility and its few surrounding villages from Kazakhstan on a lease that expires in 2050. But environmental damage at the remote space center and at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test facility have become points of contention between the Kremlin and leaders of now-independent and economically diversifying Kazakhstan.
A Russian space-agency official was quoted by the RIA-Novosti news agency as saying work at Baikonur is likely to be suspended for two to three months to clean up the fuel dumped across a wide swath around the crash site.
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In recent years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has relied on Russia to provide transportation for U.S. astronauts headed to the international space station. But those spaceflights have been powered by a Soyuz rocket that has a strong safety record.
Tuesday’s rocket failure was “another setback for Moscow’s space program,” RIA-Novosti stated, recalling a 2010 Proton-M rocket crash that destroyed three other satellites intended for the Russian GLONASS system, a global-positioning network like the GPS that guides U.S. drivers, hikers, golfers and fliers.
Another Proton-M failed in August 2011, an incident blamed on a control-system malfunction, and complications with the Briz engine on the rocket scrapped a Proton mission last summer. In December, a booster failed to lift the Proton to its planned satellite deployment position, requiring a second mission to put the satellite into the correct orbit, the Russian space agency Roskosmos reported at the time.
In July 2006, a Russian Dnepr rocket carrying 18 satellites, mostly for foreign clients including the United States and Italy, crashed a minute and a half after launch, destroying its entire payload and setting back Russia’s commercial launch agenda for months.
A Proton-M rocket had been scheduled to carry an Astra 2-E satellite into space July 20, and four days later a Progress 52 spacecraft was to lift off from Baikonur with supplies for the space station. Both will be delayed, RIA-Novosti said, quoting an unnamed Russian space-agency official.
Tuesday’s Proton-M launch was the fifth so far this year and also the fifth failure of the rocket since December 2010, according to Space.com.
The Proton-M rockets, developed during the Soviet era, are produced at the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center in Moscow. The program has also been plagued by corruption allegations, and the rocket’s chief designer was fired last year after a fraud investigation.
The Proton is one of the largest rockets used today, weighing 700 tons on the launchpad, according to a reference book published by the Russian space agency. A fully loaded Boeing 747, by comparison, weighs about 400 tons.
Most of the rocket’s weight is fuel. Kazakh space officials said the rocket carried 600 tons of heptyl, kerosene and other propellants. Kazakhstan’s government has tried to ban its use at Baikonur.
Even after successful launchings, herders have found dead cows underneath flight paths, killed by eating grass contaminated from jettisoned rocket stages contaminated with unburned heptyl.
Includes information from The New York Times