When Election Day dawns, more than 45 million Americans are expected to have already voted, a record number.
DES MOINES, Iowa — A decade ago, strategist Karl Rove launched the Republican Party’s “72-hour” plan: a massive door-knocking and phone effort in the final three days before the election that helped generate victories in 2002 and 2004. Early voting this year has rendered Rove’s idea obsolete.
Ballots have landed on kitchen tables in North Carolina, where two-thirds or more of the vote will likely be cast early. In-person voting starts Thursday in Iowa, a swing state, and also in Wyoming.
Before this month is over, residents in 30 states will be voting. And when Election Day dawns, more than 45 million Americans are expected to have already voted, a record number. At least a third of American voters probably will lock in their choices before Nov. 6.
Although the two candidates have yet to debate, voting by mail is under way in two dozen states, with more to follow.
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In Washington state, where voting is entirely by mail, more than 57,000 ballots for military and overseas voters were mailed Friday; the rest of the ballots will be mailed Oct. 19. All ballots must be returned by Nov. 6.
In three states — Idaho, South Dakota and Vermont — voters already can show up in person.
In some of the other hotly contested states — Colorado, Nevada, North Carolina and Florida — more than half the ballots are expected to come in early this year.
Stretching voting out over six weeks makes the high-wire act of presidential campaigning that much more complicated. It presents risks but also rewards for the candidates, as then-Sen. Barack Obama proved in 2008 through an aggressive, early mobilizing strategy that overpowered Republican challenger John McCain.
The Mitt Romney campaign is pouring manpower and money into its own push to sew up early votes.
The campaign ad wars, which used to peak toward the end of October, are expected to reach maximum intensity by the first of the month. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia allow voters, without any excuse or justification, to cast ballots in person before Election Day, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures.
Early voting is often promoted as a convenience. But it may be a bigger boon for candidates, enabling them to deploy money and personnel more efficiently as they work to corral votes as soon as possible.
“By encouraging our supporters to vote early, we can focus our resources more efficiently on Election Day to make sure those less likely to vote get out to the polls,” said Adam Fetcher, an Obama campaign spokesman. “We’ve made early investments in battleground states, where we’ve been registering folks and keeping an open conversation going with undecided voters for months.”
Using advanced technology, campaigns track, or “chase,” voters who request absentee ballots, often on a daily basis, until they are turned in. Then the campaign moves on. “You stop sending them mail. You stop calling them. You don’t need to knock on their door anymore,” said a senior Obama campaign aide, who requested anonymity because he is not an authorized spokesman.
In Iowa, trekking to the polling place is an Election Day ritual for habitual Republican voters, said a Romney strategist. So the campaign is putting its emphasis instead on banking early votes from Iowans who favor the Republican nominee but whose voting histories indicate that they can be unreliable.
Initial indications from Iowa favor Democrats, who made an early push for absentee ballots and have requested nearly six times as many as GOP voters. The Romney camp says that Republicans are catching up and that mailings went out only recently to their side.
Early voting can insulate a candidate against a damaging gaffe or negative news story in the closing weeks before Election Day. The disclosure of a decades-old drunken-driving charge against George W. Bush five days before the 2000 election may have cost him as many as five states, Rove, his chief strategist, later wrote. Late damage might be reduced this year, when more than 35 percent of the vote is expected to be cast early, compared with less than 15 percent in 2000.
But the dynamic works both ways. Early voting could mute the boost from a positive event, such as a strong showing in this year’s final televised debate Oct. 22, only 15 days before the election.
Paul Gronke, who directs the Early Voting Information Center at Reed College in Portland, Ore., says that most early voters don’t cast their ballots until the final week or two before an election. “The real danger period for candidates is three or four days before the election,” he said.
In most of the 2012 battlegrounds, half or more of the votes will come in early, according to campaign officials.
“North Carolina, Florida, Colorado, Nevada, Ohio, Iowa. There’s a path to 270 (electoral votes) right there,” said Rich Beeson, political director for the Romney campaign, listing states where early voting is expected to top the national average. But early voting rules vary widely from state to state, as do strategies and tactics for pursuing voters.
Students, for example, are a major Obama target. But snail mail is increasingly useless in reaching them — many no longer have mailboxes in their dorms — complicating efforts to harvest absentee ballots. So in Iowa and other states, Democrats are emphasizing satellite voting locations on or near college campuses.
Republicans, meanwhile, are targeting early voting locations at or near megachurches, where large numbers of GOP-leaning evangelical Christians worship. In the 2010 election, early voting was held at the same time as Sunday services for two evangelical congregations in Ames, Iowa. Nationally, the Faith and Freedom Coalition is urging conservative Christians in at least 10 swing states to register and vote early.
For the first time, the Ohio secretary of state, a Republican, is mailing absentee-ballot applications — twice — to every registered voter, moving his state closer to Washington and Oregon, where voting is entirely by mail.
In California, which pioneered no-excuse absentee voting in 1978, 41.7 percent of the presidential vote was cast by absentee ballot in 2008, according to the U.S. Election Assistance Commission. That figure is expected to increase this fall.
In Nevada, early polling places are like pop-up stores, sometimes open for a brief period of time. Figuring out which precincts to target to flush out voters becomes another part of the early voting challenge — before the voting machines move from the Albertsons to the Smiths’ down the street.
Republicans say they have stepped up their early voting game, narrowing a gap that benefited Obama last time. At the same time, Republican lawmakers have attempted to impose restrictions on early voting in several states since the 2008 election.
One of the most controversial curbs was in Florida, the largest swing state, where Republican Gov. Rick Scott and the GOP-controlled Legislature outlawed early voting on the Sunday before Election Day, while allowing it on the previous Sunday.
On Monday, U.S. District Judge Timothy Corrigan in Jacksonville ruled the state doesn’t have to provide 96 hours of early voting in all counties, in a lawsuit over claims that a 2011 law discriminates against blacks.
The 2011 law cut early voting to eight days from 14 and removed the final Sunday before Election Day. Counties were allowed to offer 48 to 96 hours of early voting under the law.
Includes material from Bloomberg News