Nearly half of the nation's 6 million-plus pregnancies each year are unintended. An estimated 43 percent end in abortion.
WASHINGTON — Free birth control led to substantially lower rates of abortions and teen births, a large study concluded Thursday, offering strong evidence for how a contested Obama administration policy could benefit women’s health.
The project tracked more than 9,000 women in St. Louis, many of them poor or uninsured. They were given their choice of a range of contraceptive methods at no cost — from birth-control pills to goofproof options such as the IUD or a matchstick-size implant.
When price wasn’t an issue, women flocked to the most effective contraceptives — the implanted options, which typically cost hundreds of dollars to insert. These women experienced far fewer unintended pregnancies as a result, reported Dr. Jeffrey Peipert, of Washington University in St. Louis, in a study published Thursday.
The effect on teen pregnancy was striking: There were 6.3 births per 1,000 teenagers in the study. Compare that to a national rate of 34 births per 1,000 teens in 2010.
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There also were substantially lower rates of abortion, when compared with women in the metro area and nationally: 4.4 to 7.5 abortions per 1,000 women in the study, compared with 13.4 to 17 abortions per 1,000 women overall in the St. Louis region, Peipert calculated. That’s also lower than the national rate of almost 20 abortions per 1,000 women.
If the program were expanded, one abortion could be prevented for every 79 to 137 women given a free contraceptive choice, Peipert’s team reported in the journal Obstetrics & Gynecology.
The findings of the study, which ran from 2008 to 2010, come as millions of U.S. women are beginning to get access to contraception without co-pays under President Obama’s health-care law. Women’s-health specialists said the research foreshadows that policy’s potential impact.
“As a society, we want to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortion rates. This study has demonstrated that having access to no-cost contraception helps us get to that goal,” said Alina Salganicoff, director of women’s health policy at the Kaiser Family Foundation.
“It’s just an amazing improvement,” Dr. James Breeden, president of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, said of the results. “I would think if you were against abortions, you would be 100 percent for contraception access.”
The law requires that Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptives be available for free for women enrolled in most workplace-insurance plans, a change that many will see as new plan years begin Jan. 1.
The policy is among the law’s most contentious provisions because it exempts churches that oppose contraception but requires religious-affiliated organizations, such as colleges or hospitals, to provide the coverage for their workers.
The U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops and many conservative groups say that violates religious freedom, and Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney has voiced similar criticism.
This week, a federal judge in St. Louis dismissed a lawsuit challenging the contraception mandate; nearly three dozen similar suits have been filed.
Thursday’s data didn’t sway the critics. Jeanne Monahan of the conservative Family Research Council suggested contraceptive use can encourage riskier sexual behavior.
Nearly half of the nation’s 6 million-plus pregnancies each year are unintended. An estimated 43 percent end in abortion. Low-income women are far more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy than their wealthier counterparts.
“We shouldn’t have, in my view, a tiered system where the women with money can get family planning and the women without cannot,” said Peipert.