WASHINGTON — In March, Henry Chao, chief digital architect for the Obama administration’s new online-insurance marketplace, told industry executives he was deeply worried about the website’s debut. “Let’s just make sure it’s not a third-world experience,” he told them.
Two weeks after the rollout, few would say his hopes were realized.
For the past 12 days, a system costing more than $400 million and billed as a one-stop, click-and-go hub for citizens seeking health insurance has thwarted the efforts of millions to simply log in.
The growing national outcry has embarrassed the administration, which has refused to say how many people have enrolled through the federal exchange. Even some supporters of the Affordable Care Act worry that the flaws in the system, if not quickly fixed, could threaten the fiscal health of the insurance initiative, which depends on throngs of customers to spread the risk and keep prices low.
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“These are not glitches,” said an insurance executive who has participated in many conference calls on the federal exchange. Like many people interviewed for this article, the executive spoke on the condition of anonymity. “The extent of the problems is pretty enormous.”
Interviews with two dozen contractors, current and former government officials, insurance executives and consumer advocates, as well as examination of confidential administration documents, point to a series of missteps — financial, technical, managerial — that led to the troubles.
Dr. Donald Berwick, the administrator of the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in 2010 and 2011, said the time and budgetary pressures were a constant worry. “The staff was heroic and dedicated, but we did not have enough money and we all knew that,” he said in an interview Friday.
Administration officials have said there is plenty of time to resolve the problems before the mid-December deadline to sign up for coverage that begins Jan. 1 and a March 31 deadline for coverage that starts later. A round-the-clock effort is under way, with the government leaning more heavily on the major contractors, including the U.S. subsidiary of the Montreal-based CGI Group and Booz Allen Hamilton.
Confidential progress reports from the Health and Human Services Department show that senior officials repeatedly expressed doubts that the computer systems for the federal exchange would be ready on time, blaming delayed regulations, a lack of resources and other factors.
Deadline after deadline was missed. The biggest contractor, CGI Federal, was awarded its $94 million contract in December 2011. But the government was so slow in issuing specifications that the firm did not start writing software code until this spring, according to people familiar with the process.
In the last week of September, officials were still changing features of the website, healthcare.gov, and debating whether consumers should be required to register and create password-protected accounts before they could shop for health plans.
One unusual decision, reached early in the project, proved critical: The Medicare and Medicaid agency assumed the role of project quarterback, responsible for making sure each separately designed database and piece of software worked with the others, instead of assigning that task to a lead contractor.
Some people involved in the project seriously doubted the agency had the in-house capability to handle such a mammoth technical task of software engineering while simultaneously supervising 55 contractors.
Marilyn Tavenner, the administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and Kathleen Sebelius, secretary of health and human services, both insisted in July that the project was not in trouble.
But just a trickle of the 14.6 million people who have visited the federal exchange so far have managed to enroll in insurance plans, according to executives of major insurance companies who receive enrollment files from the government. And some of those enrollments are marred by mistakes.
Neither Tavenner nor other agency officials would answer questions about the exchange or its performance last week.